How do news entrepreneurs view the future of their profession? Four theses on tomorrow’s journalism

By Alexa Keinert, Annett Heft and Leyla Dogruel / In view of fundamental transformations in the media landscape, the future of professional journalism is not only debated among communication scholars but also among journalists and media professionals. Relying on interviews with journalists and founders of German news start-ups, we contribute to this debate and present news entrepreneurs’ perceptions on (1) the core functions of journalism in the future and (2) trends regarding journalism concepts, organisational forms, and revenue models of professional journalism. Based on our findings, four trends can be identified: (1) Professional journalism must focus on comprehensively investigated ›good stories‹. (2) The illusion of objective journalism is replaced by journalism with attitude. (3) Collaboration is the future organisational form in journalism. (4) The funding of professional journalism must increasingly come from civil society.

Means of power Gandhi’s journalistic ethics

By Gerret von Nordheim / Gandhi saw journalism as an irreplaceable means of power in his fight against oppression. As a publisher and deskman, he developed the ethical principles that are presented systematically in this paper. Even today, 150 years after Gandhi’s birth, they still give us cause to reflect. Gandhi’s principles are not those of a journalist who idealizes practice at a hypothetical level, nor those of a theorist guilty of creating an implausible utopia. Instead, they bear witness to a life spent dealing practically with the ethical problems of journalistic work. Given the increasing fragmentation and sense of outrage in today’s society, his publications’ absolute proximity to the reader – in both form and content – and his strict avoidance of unnecessary affectation appear almost prophetic. Other aspects appear stranger: Gandhi rarely reported on political events and rejected both advertising and the exercise of journalism as a profession.

»World history does not pay enough attention to rays of sunshine« The political and social dimension of Joseph Roth’s journalistic work

by Petra Herczeg / Joseph Roth (1894 to 1939) was one of the most significant authors of the 20th Century, familiar to a wide audience with works such as »Job« and »Radetzky March« and through the films of many of his literary works. But he was more than this, leaving behind a comprehensive body of journalistic work. Both his literary and his journalistic work is shaped by precise observations and a sociological look at people and society. This paper analyzes the journalistic work of Joseph Roth, especially his journalistic efforts to counter the rise of National Socialism, and discusses its topicality for journalism today.

Investigative Data Journalism in a Globalized World A Survey Study on ICIJ Journalists

by Julia Lück and Tanjev Schultz / The study explores the work of journalists who were engaged in the Panama and Paradise Papers investigations of the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists (ICIJ), which uncovered dubious financial transactions on a global scale. An online survey was conducted in March 2018 (N = 67). It comprised aspects of working routines, division of labor, personal networks, challenges, and obstacles, as well as assessments concerning journalistic methods and anonymous sources. Quantitative and qualitative answers give descriptive insights into the mechanisms of global investigative data journalism. Despite diverse backgrounds (42 countries, different types of media), the journalists have much in common when it comes to professional norms and working routines. At the same time, the strict rules of the organization and a lack of access to material and knowledge also pose challenges for members of the network.

News in portrait format How can the story format on social media channels be used in a journalistic context?

by Theresa Möckel / For which journalistic situations are stories on social media platforms suitable? What do most young users expect from a story? This paper reveals what stories offer in narrative and journalistic formats. The author analyzed news stories, before creating a sample story, presenting it to a selected target audience, and evaluating it in an online survey. She then used this survey as the basis for a recommendation on how to use stories in journalism. continue to article

Between information, dramatization, and entertainment An analysis of the role and self-image of tabloid journalism

by Jonas Schützeneder / Hack or entertainer? Masterly investigation or fearmongering? Tabloid journalism and its actors live by exaggerating content and emotionalizing issues. Although they are regularly criticized for this, their products are consumed by a majority of the population. Much research has been conducted into the balance between information, drama, and entertainment, but the personal perspective of the journalists is frequently neglected. How do the journalists describe their role? A qualitative survey of 14 German journalists shows that tabloid journalism and sensitivity are not mutually exclusive and that digitalization is bringing with it entirely new opportunities and challenges. continue to article

Ideological Representation of the U.S. Presidential Candidates in the Editorials of English Online Newspapers in Russia A Critical Discourse Analysis

by Swetlana Maschinez/ This study examines the ideological representation of the U.S. Presidential candidates Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump in the editorial sections of the three English-language online newspapers in Russia: Sputnik International, Russia Beyond the Headlines and The Moscow Times. Through Jäger’s framework, van Leeuwen’s model of the social actors’ representation, and van Dijk’s notion of ideological square as powerful tools of enquiry within Critical Discourse Analysis, several tactics could be identified that were applied to influence public’s opinion about the candidates. The results showed that state-owned Russian media outlets made increasingly favorable comments about Donald Trump while consistently ridiculing and offering negative coverage of Hillary Clinton. continue to article

Citizen reporting: between participation and professional journalism Formats of citizen journalism in local television

by Gabriele Hooffacker

Abstract: Which conditions engender the success of participation in local television? What motivates citizen reporters and what do editorial departments expect from them? Which formats are suitable? Various research projects at Leipzig University of Applied Sciences (HTWK) have examined the way citizen reporters contribute to local television. The results can be used to derive factors that influence the success of participative formats in local television. continue to article

Journalism Started with its Professional Ethos Daniel Defoe on Publicness, Press Freedom and its Limits[1]

By Horst Pöttker / Daniel Defoe (1660-1731) not only wrote the novel Robinson Crusoe, one of the most circulated book in world history, but he also edited and authored England’s first political magazine, The Review, which appeared three times a week from 1704 to 1713. In addition to covering the war in France at that time, Defoe also wrote for The Review what can be called “theoretical articles” that reveal his self-understanding and professional ethos as a journalist. This paper deals with some of these articles as well as with Defoe’s ideas concerning the public, the public sphere, public opinion, public discourse, public life, publicness, publicity (all expressing various aspects of the German word Öffentlichkeit), press freedom and its legitimate limits. continue to article